Hybrid Scrapbooking Glossary

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Common Terms for Hybrid Scrapbooking (the combination of traditional and digital scrapbooking methods)

ETA: 11/05/08 This glossary was not written by me. It was collected by me, the sources are listed at the end of this post. Thank you.

PSE - Photoshop Elements
PS - Photoshop
PSCS2- Photoshop Creative Suite 2 (used by those who are pro photographers and digital kit designers)
PSP- Paint Shop Pro

AIG-Art Institute Glitter-a specfic brand of very fine glitter. You can also purchase vintage glitter from AIG.

Accordion mini album: A mini album following the concept of the accordion fold.

Acrylic paint: A fast-drying, water-soluble paint containing pigment suspended in an acrylic polymer emulsion. It can be diluted with water or other mediums, and becomes flexible and water-resistant when dry.

Adhesive Photo Squares: Small photo Squares ready to use to mount your photos with.

Alphas Decorative alphabet letters to creative titles for your layouts. In digital scrapping, Each letter is a separate element, however some alphas are all in one file and must be “cut” out.

Angel Company-An angel company is one that will let you use their images to make a product that you intend to sell. They waive (or partially waive) their copyright to the image on an individual basis. Each company is a little different, so it pays to double check, but most of them will allow you to use their images for resale as long as the product that you make is hand stamped.

Assemblage: 3-dimensional objects attached to a flat surface; sometimes used in conjunction with collage and montage.

Background: The part of the scene that appears behind the principal subject of the picture or photo.

Background Paper: The paper that is the foundation of the scrapbook page; you adhere your photos and embellishments to this paper. In digital scrapping, this is often your bottom layer.

Backstitch {sewing term}Used at the beginning and end of a machine sewn seam to anchor the seam in place; it involves a couple of extra stitches back and forth.

Backup/Backup Files: Copies of data and program files. Usually the information on a hard drive or disk is stored on a separate disk. If you store any of your journaling, family history, or photographs on your computer it is vial that you create a backup files.

Banding: {printing term} This is where you have visible blocks of color rather than a smooth gradation between colors. The most common place you’ll see banding is in gradients, where in certain situations, instead of moving seamlessly from color to color, you’ll see visible squares of colors with clearly defined edges between each color.

batik --{design term} a method of selectively applying dye to cloth which is covered in part with a dye-resistant, removable substance such as wax. After dyeing, the wax is removed, and the design appears in the original color against the newly colored background. Also refers to the finished, dyed cloth.

Bitmap: {computer term} The method of storing information that maps an image pixel, bit by bit. There are many bitmapped file formats, .bmp, .pcx, .pict, .pict-2, tiff, .tif, .gif (89a), and so on. Most image files are bit mapped. This type of file gives you the ´jaggies´, when examined closely you can see the line of pixels that create edges. Bitmap images are used by all computers. The desktop or screen information for all Windows machines uses .bmp files, while the Macintosh uses pict files.

Blanket stitch {sewing term} Used to neaten the edge of a buttonhole, blanket, vest edge, or other seamline. A blanket stitch can be done by hand or machine.

Blend Modes: {digital term}When you create a layer in Photoshop, blend modes determine how it interacts with layers that are beneath it. By default, the blend mode is “Normal,“which means the object on your new layer simply covers whatever is beneath it. If you change the blend mode, the layer now reacts with what’s beneath it (rather than just covering it) and can “blend” into it using a variety of colors, screens, etc. Paint tools and the Gradient tool in Photoshop also have blend modes, accessible from their Options palette

boot- {computer term} Starting up an OS is booting it. If the computer is already running, it is more often called rebooting.

Brayer-{stamping term} A rubber roller which is attached to a handle. They were originally used by printers. They come in a variety of sizes and hardnesses. The brayer most commonly used in rubber stamping is medium hard (like a car tire) although acrylic ones have been coming more popular. Use them to spread the ink from a pad across paper, create multi-colored backgrounds and more.

bug- {computer term} A bug is a mistake in the design of something, especially software. A really severe bug can cause something to crash.

Burn {digital term}
extend. Photoshop Burn tool
In the graphics World, to burn an image is to darken it selectively. Although, it comes from a technique used in traditional photography, to control exposure on a specific part of a photographic print, this technique is nowadays usually performed using a digital image editor such as Photoshop.

The Burn tool is part of the same set of tools in Photoshop as the Dodge tool and the Sponge Tool.

See also: Dodge tool, Sponge tool

CMYK: {printing term} Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black; These are the printer colors used to create color prints. Most Color Printers, Ink-Jet, Laser, Dye-Sublimation, Thermal, and Crayon printers use these as their printer colors. (This is one of the color management problems for computers. Converting RGB files to CMYK files cause´s color shifts.) When used by a printer the CMYK is also known as a reflective color since it is printed on paper, or reflective films

Calibration: {computer term} The act of adjusting the color of one device relative to another, such as a monitor to a printer, or a scanner to a film recorder, or relative to an established standard.

Cardstock -- Thick, sturdy paper available in a variety of weights.

cartridge {printing term}
The container for inks in inkjet printers. Chipped cartridges have electronic chips on them that can prevent refilling. Unchipped cartridges can be reused or used with inks other than those of the manufacturer.

CD-ROM: {computer term} A device that uses a compact disc (CD). A CD can store large amounts of data - 800 megabytes of information - which would equal more than 200,000 printed pages. Many scrapbookers store copies of their scrapbook pages on a CD. (If you have a DVD component on your computer, a DVD disc holds much more data)

Channel: {digital term} A piece of information stored with an image. True color images, for example, have three channels -- red, green and blue.

click- {computer term} To press a mouse button. When done twice in rapid succession, it is referred to as a double-click.

Cloning tool {digital term}
extend. Stamp tool
The Photoshop cloning stamp tool is used to duplicate one section of an image to another part.

There are various uses for this, the most common is to cover up unwanted artifacts in a photograph. This can vary from scratches and smudges, to undesirable figures, lampposts, dustbins and so on.

Collage -- An artistic composition made of various materials (paper, cloth, wood, etc.) that are glued onto a surface.

Compression: {computer term} Process of compacting digital data, images and text. Software algorithms search the raster image to build a greatly condensed (from a file storage perspective) format of the image. In the case of CCITT Group IV, the file size reduction is about 25:1. The actual compression factor is greatly dependent upon the quality of the scan and upon the density of the information.

A misnomer that implies that no human, artistic control is required to produce artwork. In general it may mean having come through a specific kind of device, but essentially it is understood that computers do nothing without the input and control of human beings.

Legal basis for the owner's control of the usage of his images or artworks.

Crackle Finish: {paint/stamping term} A three-step painting process that results in an aged, weathered appearance. There are kits commercially available at craft or hardware stores. If you are adventuresome, try making your own crackle medium from our Craft Recipes. {Tim Holtz now has a crackle paint that is only one-step}

Craft knife: A short, sharp cutting blade mounted on a pen-like metal handle. Many types and sizes of blades and handles are available. Also known by the name of its primary manufacturer, the X-Acto Knife.

cursor- {computer term} A point of attention on the computer screen, often marked with a flashing line or block. Text typed into the computer will usually appear at the cursor.

Cutting Mat: This is a thick mat used for cutting and cropping on, it protects the surface underneath that you are working on and gives stability to your working surface. (I, Julie Ann, use a quiliting cutting mat that is "self-healing" from the fabric store.)

Crop -- 1. To cut or trim a photograph. 2. A scrapbooking party hosted by an expert who shares techniques, products and information with the group.

Deacidification Spray -- Spray that neutralizes acid in newspaper clippings, certificates and other documents.

Decorative Scissors -- Scissors with a decorative pattern on the blade.

desktop- {computer term}A desktop system is a computer designed to sit in one position on a desk somewhere and not move around. Most general purpose computers are desktop systems. (If we say "download to your desktop", it is downloaded to show the file on your computer wallpaper screen. From there you can move the download to a file of your choice.)

Die Cut: A shape or letter cut from paper with a special die cutting machine.

Digital: Process that uses numerical digits to create a uniform text or graphic on a computer.

digital art
Art created with one or more digital processes or technologies.

digital collage
The process of electronically simulating traditional collage techniques by pasting together disparate images into a cohesive visual whole, resulting in a new image.

digital fine art print
A fine art print made by any digital output process conforming to traditional fine art qualifications and requirements.

digital imaging
The process of image capture, manipulation and final image form, accomplished by digital systems.

Digital piracy - Piracy is the theft, reproduction, or redistribution of a copyrighted work without the permission or knowledge of the creator/copyright holder. YES, redistributing something you got for free is still piracy. If you didn't create it, DON'T redistribute it! Click here for why.

digital photoprint
One of the major digital printing technologies. Produces actual photographic prints that are exposed to laser or LED light then processed in traditional RA-4 chemistry. (see "digital C-print")

Dodge tool {digital term}
The Photoshop Dodge tool is another digital version of a technique that is used in traditional photographic development. The Dodge tool selectively lightens an area of a photographic image. It essentially does the opposite of the Burn tool, in Photoshop or another image editor.

See also: Burn tool

Download: {computer term} The transfer of files or other information from one piece of computer equipment to another.

Drag and Drop:: {computer term} The process of moving text, graphics or photos to different locations in a document or between applications.

Drop-Down Menu:: {computer menu} A Windows function where click on some text opens a larger list with specific options / functions under it.

Element - the digital term for anything you would put on a page like a frame, ribbon, button or other embellishment

Embellishment - the traditional term for anything you would add to the page for decoration or symbolism like ribbon, buttons, charms

Ephemera: Ephemera is anything short-lived. In crafting, it means paper materials that were created for a single practical purpose, with no thought that they would be saved or preserved. Artists may use ephemera, such as vintage postcards, stamps, advertising, or other illustrated material, in their collages or other artwork.

Epoxy: An adhesive composed of two liquids, a resin and a hardener, that when mixed together, harden to form a strong bond. Epoxy is suitable for bonding porous and non-porous materials.

Export: {computer term} The act of sending a file out through a specialized mini-application, to print, compress, or to a specialized file format.

Eyelet: A small metal ring, designed to reinforce a hole in paper or fabric. See Craft Glossary entry for Grommet.

Felt: A heavy, non-fraying, fabric generally made from wool with other manufactured fibers. The fibers are locked together in a process utilizing heat, moisture, and pressure to form a compact material.

Fill Color:
{digital term} A color used by a rendering application when filling a closed area.

Filter: {digital term} A specialized mini-application to extend or offer unique expansions of a software package. Usually through the use of plug-in architecture. This is a key component of many imaging software packages

Freebies - Digital elements, kits, papers, templates or anything given for free as a promotional downloadable item. This lets you get a taste of the designer's work, quality, and style. Always read the "Terms of Use" that accompany the download because copyright and other terms do apply. It is considered digital piracy to share these items with others. Always give the designer's blog link instead when you wish others to know about the freebie. Designers like to keep track of how many people have downloaded the item, among other things.

French curve A tool used for drafting curves when altering or creating sewing patterns or designs.

Fusible (webbing, interfacing, etc.) {sewing term} Has the characteristic of being able to be ironed on, usually permanently, with or without reinforcement by stitching, due to a heat-activated "glue" on one side.

gaussian blur
An image-softening effect used in digital imagery. Named after French Mathematician Carl Friedrich Gausse.

Gel Medium or Polymer Medium: {paint/stamping term}A thick, colorless liquid, used as a paint additive, protective finish, or adhesive.

Gesso: {paint/stamping term}A thick white fluid, made from chalk or plaster and glue. It is used to prepare surfaces for painting or gilding.

GIF: {computer term}Graphic Interface designed by CompuServe for using images on line. This is a 256 color or 8 bit image.

GIF 89:
The most recent GIF standard that allow the selection of area for transparency, primary use is on the internet and other on-line services. Like GIF it is 256 color or 8 bit imaging

extend. GNU Image Manipulation Program
The GIMP is a shareware bitmap image editor, popular amongst many web designers. The GIMPs major advantage is that it is free. However, it is certainly capable of creating, editing and optimizing graphics for web design purposes. It is less useful for print designers, as it is unable to separate graphics files into CMYK process colours or to utilise Pantone and spot colours. Graphics professionals may also find it's tool-set to be lacking in many features that are present in Photoshop.

See also: Photoshop

Gradient Fill:: {digital term} An elaboration on a fill color consisting of two colors placed at opposite ends of a closed area of an image element. The area is filled with a continuous blend of color intermediate to the two colors and between the two ends.

graphics tablet
An input device that uses a stylus or specialized mouse to write or draw on the tablet surface to communicate with the computer.

Grommet : A ring or eyelet of metal, often used to reinforce a hole. See Craft Glossary entry for Eyelet.

Hand Tinting: {traditional scrap term} Also known as hand coloring. Applying layers of color with oils, dyes, or pigments to the surface of a black-and-white photograph, giving it the appearance of a colored photograph.

Histogram:: {digital term} A bar graph analysis tool for identifying contrast and dynamic range image problems. Histograms are found in professional graphics editing software programs.

Idea Books -- Books usually about one aspect of scrapbooking. Some are written for particular themes (weddings, babies, pets, etc.) while others are devoted to a particular product (stickers, die-cuts, templates, etc.).

Image: Electronic representation of a document, stored and displayed as a bitmap. Various compression techniquest are in use to minimize file size and network load.

Image Editor: A program that enables you to create and edit images. ACD FotoCanvas is an example of an easy-to-use image editor. ACDSee digital camera software also includes some image editing functions.

Image Resolution: {digital term} Refers to the quality of the details and colors in an image. It is also used to describe the quality of monitors and printer output.

Ink: Colored pigment suspended in soluble or insoluble binders, used for printing, writing or drawing.

Ink-Jet Printer: An inexpensive alternative to a laser printer, an ink-jet printer forms text and images out of dots created by jets of ink. Color ink-jets support many different media sizes and output resolutions.

"Jaggies": {computer term}Slang term for the stair-stepped appearance of a curved or angled line in digital imaging. The smaller the pixels, and the greater their number the less apparent the "jaggies". Also known as pixelization.

JPEG: {computer term} The defacto standard for image compression in a digital imaging device. There are several versions of JPEG, some proprietary. JPEG, also known as JFIF takes areas of 8 x 8 pixels and compresses the information to its lowest common value. This is one of the reasons you can get as many images into digital cameras. The results in decompression of the files can cause "blockyness", the "jaggies", or "pixelization" in some digital images. The higher the compression ratio the more the pixelization or blockyness occurs. The greater the pixel count the less pixelization may occur.

Journaling -- Any words you write in your book or on the scrapbook page, from titles and captions to long descriptions, poems or stories.

Journaling Templates -- Templates with space left for writing. (traditional scrapping)

Kilobyte: {computer term} 1024 bytes, written KB. used to refer to size of files, relates to amount of information in a file.

Kit - the digital term for a collection of co-ordinationg papers and elements

Kraft paper: Strong and relatively coarse, Kraft paper is usually a brown color but can be bleached white. It is used for paper grocery bags, corrugated cardboard, large envelopes and other packaging.

Laser Printer: A printer using laser copier technology to produce high-quality printed material from computer data. The laser charges an electrostatically sensitive drum to accept carbon based toners. The toner is then transferred and fused to paper or transparency material.

Lossless Compression: {digital term} A form of compression where no data is lost, and therefore, does not affect image quality. TIFF is a lossless file format.

Marquee: {digital term} A frame displayed by a dashed line that identifies a selected portion of an image. Depending on the tool you use, you can resize or move a marquee with or without changing the underlying image.

Mask: 1. {digital term}A defined area used to limit the effect of image-editing operations to certain regions of the image. 2. {traditional} a mask is the opposite of a stencil, The masks are made from a flexible, reusable material with a repositionable adhesive on the back so the letters will stay in place as you apply any medium over the top such as a Heidi Swapp mask

Matte finish or Flat finish: A surface or coating that is dull or non-glossy.

memory - Computer memory is used to temporarily store data. In reality, computer memory is only capable of remembering sequences of zeros and ones, but by utilizing the binary number system it is possible to produce arbitrary rational numbers and through clever formatting all manner of representations of pictures, sounds, and animations. The most common types of memory are RAM, ROM, and flash. Digital scrapbooking often needs a certain amount of memory to function at normal speeds.

Mini Kit - the digital term for a smaller collection of co-ordinating papers and elements, often less expensive or given as a promotional freebie

Mixed Media: An object d'art, which incorporates more than one type of medium.

Montage: A work made entirely of photographs or incorporating photographs into a collage.

Lignin -- A naturally occurring acid substance in wood that breaks down over time. Paper with lignin is not suitable for archival projects.

Megabyte: {computer term} 1024 Kilobytes, written MB used to refer to size of files or media such as hard drives. Refers to amount of information in a file, or how much information can be contained on a Hard Drive or Disk.

Memorabilia -- Certificates, documents and other items that tell a story. Memorabilia can include souvenirs from trips and mementos from special occasions or historical events.

Needle Sewing machine needles come in a variety of sizes and types - ball point and sharps are the two major categories. Ball point is used for knits and regular sharp needles are used for nonstretch fabrics. There are also all purpose needles, but it is recommended that you use ball point or regular rather than all purpose. There are wing needles, wedge needles, needles of varying sizes and shapes, as well as twin needles for some fancier stitching.

organizer In digital scrapping, an organizer allows you to put your photos or digital kits into an organized system, and to tag your photos with keywords.

orientation {digital/printing term}
The direction that the page is printed; horizontal = landscape, vertical = portrait.

Page Protectors -- Plastic sheets that display and protect pages.

Paint Pens -- Pens with soft, brush-like tips. The amount of ink dispensed is controlled by the pressure that is applied to the tip.

Paper maché: A craft construction material consisting of small pieces of absorbent paper (like newsprint, stuck together with a wet paste like glue, starch, wheat paste or wallpaper paste. The crafted object becomes solid when the paste dries.

Paper-tearing: A technique in scrapbooking where you tear paper, rather than cutting it to create a unique texture.

Paper Trimmers -- Paper-cutting tools used by placing paper, lining it up on a grid and moving down a blade.

patina -- a surface coloring of metal, usually brown or green, produced by oxidation of bronze or other metal. It occurs naturally or can be produced artificially for decorative effect. Also, the substance used to produce this effect.

Pattern Paper -- Paper with designs repeated on the entire page. (common abbreviation is PP)

Pixel: {computer term} The pixel is the smallest part of a digitized or Digital Image. Also used in measuring image size and resolution, i.e., 640 x 480 is the pixel resolution of most VGA Monitors. (Note pixels are square in computers and rectangular in video)

portrait, portrait mode
The orientation of an image that is taller than it is wide; a setting controlling an output device to properly fit a computer document to the print medium. Vertical.

An effect created by having a limited number of levels or gradient steps within an image. This may be a planned/desired effect, or it may be a mistake requiring correction.

PPI: Printing term for Pixels per Inch

RAM: {computer term} Random Access Memory, the volatile memory used to temporarily store information for processing. This is the fastest type of memory for the computer, and the most expensive. There are several types of RAM.

Re-positionable Glue: an acid free adhesive that stays tacky allowing you to move your item around until satisfied with its location.

Resize: {digital} To alter the resolution or the horizontal or vertical size of an image.

Retouching: Altering a print or negative after development by use of dyes or pencils to alter tones of highlights, shadows, and other details, or to remove blemishes. You can also retouch your photo digitally with photo-editing software.

Rubber Stamping: Using carving tools to carve your own design or a found design into stamp material such as soft vinyl eraser-like substances.

Ruler Rulers used in sewing are usually made of a clear plastic and marked in 1/4" or less increments. A very popular ruler is 2" wide and 18" long, and can be used for sewing, rotary cutting, measuring buttonhole placement, and other measuring jobs. In addition to a ruler or two, a good measuring tape is needed.

Running stitch {sewing term} A simple stitch made by running the thread over and under the fabric. This stitch is often used for basting or as the basis (marking) for another more decorative stitch.

Satin stitch {sewing term} A very tight zig zag stitch that is available on most sewing machines. If it is not automatically available, the stitch length can be set to almost 0 to achieve a satin stitch with a plain zig zag machine.

Scalable: {digital term}An image, such as that stored as vector data, which can be scaled (increased or decreased in size) without causing the image to become misshapen.

Scanned Image: Image that has been processed by a computer scanner to create a digital file of the image.

Scanner: Digital equipment that can capture the image of whatever is placed on its scanning bed. Scanned items can be imported into a computer system as a file.

Scoring: To compress paper along a line so paper will fold more easily.

Sealer: A protective coating applied to surface before and after painting which prevents chemical reactions between the paints and the surfaces

Sequin: A small shiny disk of plastic, often sewn on cloth in mass quantities as decoration.

Sketch: A low-resolution black and white drawing, showing a basic "layout" of a page style.

Scraplifting - to copy someone else's project directly (common etiquette is to always make note of the person's name and if possible a link to their original to give them credit. It is also nice to drop the person a note to tell them you've lifted them and where they can see your page)

Sepia: Brownish color produced on photographs in the photographic process or by natural aging.

sharpen edges
An image-editing technique to enhance the edges of an object.

A masking or image blocking that isolates an image from the background.

Software: {computer term} Operating Instructions for specific task based applications. These instructions are carried out by the computers processors. These include all packaged for use like image editing, word processing, databases, CAD, CAM, games, and so on. Software has to be written for a specific Computer OS.

Spiral-Bound Books -- Albums that are secured with a metal or plastic spiral binding running up the side of the album.

Stencil: A template made by cutting a design in a stiff material like paper, plastic, cardboard, or metal. It is affixed to a surface and paint or ink is brushed or pounced over the stencil to create the design on the surface below.

Strap-Binding Albums -- Albums secured with plastic straps that run through a holder directly on the pages and keep the book in place.

Tape Roller -- A device that distributes tape on the back of photographs and scrapbooking pages.

Tea dyeing: Imitating the look of aged, yellowed paper or fabric by soaking it in strong tea for an hour, drying and pressing it. Darker spots can be created by letting the tea bag sit on the paper for 15 mnutes. Scented teas like herbal or spice teas will leave a lingering aroma.

Template - in digital scrapbooking a template is most often a layered .PSD or .TIFF document that allows you to create a layout quickly or create a papercraft with guidelines

Template - in traditional scrapbooking a template usually means a template of an envelope, circle, shape or box

Theme -- The overall emphasis of a page or scrapbook.

Theme Album -- A scrapbook devoted to one idea. Some popular them albums focus on birthdays, weddings and school days.

toner {printing term}
A colored powder or liquid used to print onto various materials on electrostatic printers. Contains a colorant, an electrostatic thermoplastic, charge control agent, and often a magnetic material.

Toolbar: An area of a program window that uses icons and/or text to access commonly used commands.

Semitransparent, light can be seen through material.

Transfer medium or transfer solution: A powerful solvent that reactivates the ink in toner-based photocopies, enabling the image to be transferred to paper, fabric or a hard surface.

Trim Trim is any decorative item, ribbon, lace that is put on a garment or craft item that is being sewn. Trim is also used to define the act of trimming excess seam allowances or fabric with scissors.

Typography: The art of arranging text and words in a graphic layout, see Word Art

unsharp mask {digital term}
A sharpening process that first blurs the edges then subtracts the image from the blurred areas to yield an image of apparent enhanced sharpness.

Vector: {digital term} An electronic or computer-readable image format incorporating a formulate representation of graphical line art. Vector format is used during the markup process, to keep redlines separate from images and to facilitate easy modifications. This format is also often used during the edit process.

Vellum -- A lightweight, translucent paper.

A photograph that has a vignette applied has had its edges faded out, or feathered. This used to be applied a lot to portraits. In essence it is similar to the feathering technique that can be achieved with Adobe Photoshop.

Walnut Ink: Derived from walnut shells, this ink is available as a liquid or a crystalline colorant to be mixed with water.

Watermark: The translucent design or name that is visible when paper is held to the light.

A surface that can resist dampness but not a soaking of water such as that tolerated by a waterproof surface. Generally implies a lesser degree of protection against water than the term "waterfast," but still improves the material's resistance to water damage.

Wearable Art: Clothing, jewelry an accessories that have been decorated or embellished.

Word Art: Quotes and titles using 1 or more decorative fonts to create an artistic overlay for your layouts.

Workshop -- A class usually held at a scrapbooking store and taught by an expert. Participants bring photographs and pages to work on and get advice from the instructor.

X-acto knife: See Craft Glossary entry for Craft Knife.

Xyron Machine -- A machine that applies adhesive to pages and can also laminate.

Zig zag A stitch that goes one way (zig) and then the other (zag) and provides a nice finish to a seam to prevent raveling, can be a decorative addition to any garment, and can allow for give with knits. A very short to nonexistent stitch length with zig zag stitching is the same as a satin stitch

If you did not find the term you were looking for, there are more terms, including scrapbook journaling terms, on the Scrapbook Dimensions Magazine's Social Network. Login and go to here.

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Nikki Workman said...

Wow...you continue to offer the most useful information!